SIGN UP FOR INSIGHTS

AsiaGlobal Voices

Trending Opinions From Across the Region

AsiaGlobal Voices is a curated feed of summaries of opinion articles, columns and editorials published in local languages in media from across Asia.

The publication of AsiaGlobal Voices summaries does not indicate any endorsement by the Asia Global Institute or AsiaGlobal Online of the opinions expressed in them.
Support China's Accession to the CPTPP
Thursday, January 13, 2022
Support China's Accession to the CPTPP

Li Wenlong, Senior Economist at the ASEAN+3 Macroeconomic Research Office (AMRO), in Lianhe Zaobao (October 19, 2021)

Summary by Alan Yang Gregory (Photo credit: Ministry of Commerce, Thailand)

Support China's Accession to the CPTPP

On September 16, 2021, China applied to join the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). A week later, Taiwan filed its own application. Singapore, Malaysia and Mexico have all expressed their support for China's accession. Meanwhile, Japan and Australia have shown no intention of supporting China's joining in the short term. Singapore, as a founding member with close relations with China, should play a more active role in promoting China's membership. 

Once China joins, the development prospects of CPTPP will improve for the following reasons:

First, China is already the largest trading country in the world and the Asia-Pacific region. Without China's participation, the CPTPP would not be a true Asia-Pacific trade agreement. 

Second, preventing China from joining goes against the concept of CPTPP as a free-and-open trade agreement. Instead, it would turn the CPTPP into a political tool used to confront and contain China. Owing to the political intentions of Japan and Australia against China, the ideological nature of the CPTPP has been strengthened. But other member states, including Singapore, do not want to conflict with China.

Third, the CPTPP is an important measure to promote further China's integration into Asia-Pacific and global trade. China has already conducted comprehensive research and evaluations and committed to high-level market opening that exceeds China’s current practices. 

Finally, support for China to join the CPTPP will also ultimately benefit Singapore. At present, China is Singapore's largest trading partner. By supporting China's accession, the bilateral trade relationship between Singapore and China can be consolidated further.


Coexisting With Covid-19 For The Next Five Years
Wednesday, December 15, 2021
Coexisting With Covid-19 For The Next Five Years

Fu Laixing, commentator, in Lianhe Zaobao (October 3, 2021)

Summary by Alan Yang Gregory (Photo credit: Dr David Sing / Shutterstock.com)

Coexisting With Covid-19 For The Next Five Years

After achieving a vaccination rate of 82 percent, Singapore appeared ready to transition to the new normal of a Covid-19 resilient society. Then in August, the number of new daily cases rose dramatically. The question is: How long can society tolerate coexisting with the virus?

After two years there seems to be no end in sight and even after cases fall, it will till take several years for the world to return to normal. Indeed, over the past 130 years, the world has faced five major pandemics, lasting up to five years. The vaccine offers some hope. Yet, countries that have reached a certain percentage of vaccination rates such as Singapore now require their citizens to get a third booster shot. And even in the future, they will have to administer the vaccine regularly to maintain immunity as the virus evolves. Challenges stem from new variants and increased transmission during autumn and winter.

The situation is therefore precarious. Society believes that the government should not rush to loosen restrictions and that opening the borders must be done gradually. Reintroduced movement control measures have caught the public and companies by surprise. A survey found that two-thirds of the surveyed Singaporeans struggle with restrictions that limit social interaction and dining. Such measures will also undoubtedly affect Singapore’s economic performance in the second half of the year. Yet, without such action, infections will continue to climb, and it will be even more difficult to flatten the curve.

Coexisting with this virus over the next five years will be no easy task. The government must strike a careful balance between protecting Singapore’s livelihood and saving lives.


Introducing Electric Vehicles Will Not Be So Straightforward
Wednesday, November 24, 2021
Introducing Electric Vehicles Will Not Be So Straightforward

Liu Jia Ming, electrical engineer, in Lianhe Zaobao (September 23, 2021)

Summary by Alan Yang Gregory (Photo credit: Choo Yut Shing)

Introducing Electric Vehicles Will Not Be So Straightforward

According to Singapore's transportation development blueprint, all internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles will be replaced by electric vehicles by 2040. Electric vehicles do not emit exhaust gas containing toxic particles. Meanwhile, natural gas can be used to generate electricity, meaning Singapore’s air will be much cleaner. In addition, electric vehicles will reduce noise pollution by at least a half. Scientists, engineers and designers should also take advantage of this opportunity to redesign vehicles to tackle traffic congestion. In the future, big data analysis, artificial intelligence and robot operations can all be integrated to support automated driving.

Eliminating ICE vehicles will not be straightforward. Apart from developing new driving skills, licenses, maintenance, safety, insurance and so forth, there is the question of what to do with neighboring countries and to ensure compatibility between charging systems. The batteries and electronic parts needed to produce electric vehicles rely upon toxic metals such as lithium and arsenic. As such, the pollution and negative impact of electric vehicles are either not yet apparent or have not yet been fully studied.

To achieve full environmental protection and carbon reduction, it is still necessary to explore other solutions. The mayor of Paris recently proposed the concept of the "15-minute city" with the goal of all urban residents being able to get what they need in a 15-minute walk or bicycle ride. Such an example is not only environmentally friendly but can also increase productivity and improve the balance between work and rest. Ultimately, this is not just a challenge for Singapore’s Ministry of Transport. It will require the synchronization of the urban economic development of the city across sectors and actors to succeed.


Public Diplomacy Strengthens the Legitimacy of Government Policies
Tuesday, November 16, 2021
Public Diplomacy Strengthens the Legitimacy of Government Policies

Alan Chong, Associate Professor in the S Rajaratnam School of International Studies at Nanyang Technological University, in Lianhe Zaobao (September 16, 2021)

Summary by Alan Yang Gregory (Photo credit: Singapore International Foundation)

Public Diplomacy Strengthens the Legitimacy of Government Policies

Public diplomacy is an important pillar for strengthening the legitimacy of government policies. Singapore’s public diplomacy has developed through external influences. From the establishment of the British colony to the eve of the Japanese occupation of World War II, the city’s three main ethnic communities carried out their own non-state forms of public diplomacy.

After independence in 1965, Singapore attempted to maintain its unique identity as a non-aligned international trade center open to everyone. Today, Singapore is not only actively pursuing the goals of ASEAN and the UN but it is also willing to maintain communication channels and low-key economic relations with countries that have fraught relations with the West such as Iran, North Korea and Myanmar.

Singapore's omnidirectional foreign policy is also reflected through its seeking a balance between China and the US, China and Japan, and China and India. This is evident in the fact that Singapore not only regularly has exchanges with these governments but has also signed extensive special economic agreements and trade agreements with them. Singapore’s success in formal public diplomacy is evident in the frequent invitations that senior officials receive to attend dialogues involving the United States and the European Union.

It is against this background that the Singapore International Foundation (SIF), as a practitioner of public diplomacy, fulfils its role. Together, the Foundation and Singaporean citizens jointly promote domestic and foreign cooperation to support positive changes. Today, the SIF supports public diplomacy through voluntary projects in the fields of healthcare and education, as well as through social entrepreneurship programs.

Singapore’s public diplomacy not only demonstrates the country’s good governance but projects an image of a country with global potential. Looking to the future, for organizations such as the SIF, public diplomacy should aim to place social and emotional connections above official political transactions.


Urgently Address The Ultra-Low Birth Rate
Thursday, September 23, 2021
Urgently Address The Ultra-Low Birth Rate

Xu Chengwei, Research Fellow at Nanyang Technological University, in Lianhe Zaobao (March 15, 2021)

Summary by Alan Yang Gregory (Photo credit: cattan2011)

Urgently Address The Ultra-Low Birth Rate

According to the World Bank, Singapore’s birth rate has declined over the past 30 years and now stands at 1.1, far below that of the population replacement rate of 2.1. There are many reasons for this, which have to do with all aspects of our social environment and work culture. If Singapore’s birth rate is to be increase, scholars and policymakers should discuss the real difficulties faced by families with children and assess the root causes of the reluctance to raise kids.

The following issues should be addressed to encourage young people to have children:

First, the government should continue to subsidize families with children. Although the state already provides generous childcare allowances, there is still room for improvement when compared to other countries such as Canada. Policymakers should conduct detailed household surveys to assess better the childcare burden of the average family.

Second, the government should evaluate and improve existing childcare facilities. Examples of measures include establishing passenger compartments for women on the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) system and encouraging workplaces to offer maternity rooms with refrigerators for milk storage.

Third, the government should evaluate whether to extend maternity leave, while giving fathers longer paternity leave. Current leave allowances for fathers are low and prevent them from supporting the mother at critical times. In addition, wages during maternity leave should be shared by the company and the government.

Finally, there should be a new holiday and sick leave allowance for maternity check-ups. At present, pregnant women can only use their ordinary sick leave (around 14 days).

Failing to address the declining birth rate will have profound negative impact on Singapore’s economy, society and culture.


The Death Penalty Should Not Be Abolished
Tuesday, September 21, 2021
The Death Penalty Should Not Be Abolished

Ang Peng Cheoh, self-employed employment agent, in Lianhe Zaobao (July 22, 2021)

Summary by Alan Yang Gregory (Photo credit: chillipadi)

The Death Penalty Should Not Be Abolished

The government has twice in the past three years canvassed the public's views on the death penalty. This has made some worry about whether the authorities are considering its abolition.

The death penalty debate has a long history. Human rights organizations that oppose the death penalty often argue that there is no evidence that it reduces the crime rate. Meanwhile, the Catholic church opposes that death penalty because it deprives people of their sacred life and dignity. While these arguments may appear reasonable, they only uphold the human rights and the entitlement of the perpetrators. Meanwhile, they fail to consider justice for the victims and their families.

Serious crimes punishable by the death penalty in Singapore include murder, drug trafficking, and the use of arms and firearms. This has led to significant decrease in crime each year. In 2012, Singapore amended its relevant mandatory death penalty law. This allowed judges to use their discretion in cases. For instance, drug traffickers who provided information that led to the arrest of drug lords would not have to face capital punishment.

This amendment sends the wrong signal to potential criminals. Those who commit serious crimes should be sentenced to death in accordance with the law. Empowering judges to consider mitigating circumstances should only be permitted to do so in cases that do not involve the death penalty. There should be no gray areas, no room for discretion, in the prosecution and sentencing of cases in which conviction would require capital punishment.

Singapore’s long-term security and low crime rate are a result of its strict laws and the insistence that law enforcement and judicial personnel handle cases in accordance with the law. Not only should the death penalty be maintained but it also needs to be consistently enforced to deter and reduce crime.


Co-existing With Covid-19
Monday, August 23, 2021
Co-existing With Covid-19

Goh Choon Kang, former journalist and member of the Singapore Parliament from 1984 to 1997, in Lianhe Zaobao (August 11, 2021)

Summary by Alan Yang Gregory (Photo credit: ian carolino)

Co-existing With Covid-19

Singapore authorities have announced that Covid-19 safety management measures will depend upon an individual’s vaccination status. This can be interpreted as a new stage in the fight against the pandemic and a prelude to coexistence with the virus. With nearly 80 percent of the population vaccinated, they will have a good immunity to infection. This means that Covid-19 would be seen as a type of flu.

Measures are already relatively loose for those who have been vaccinated, while stricter requirements are in place for those who have not been vaccinated. As they do not have the added protection of a vaccine, they will be more likely to be infected and have a higher probability of suffering from severe illness or even death. They must be more careful and must be better protected to minimize the risk of infection.

Some still think that doing so constitutes discrimination and is unfair. But from the perspective of society, these people are not being treated differently. Instead, they have actively chosen to differentiate themselves. Everyone has a right to their own opinion, but providing they can look at the problem rationally, they should be able to make an informed decision. In Europe and the United States, the situation is different. Many oppose the vaccine, and the issue has led to a division in society. Fortunately, Singapore’s state machinery is functioning effectively, society is not polarized, and the government is also very capable of doing things. Singapore, therefore, has avoided a US-type situation.

As a country with one of the highest vaccination rates, the goal of herd immunity is just around the corner. We have the conditions that would allow us soon to enter a new normal of coexistence with Covid-19.


The Pandemic Is Promoting The Adoption of Digital Payments
Wednesday, August 11, 2021
The Pandemic Is Promoting The Adoption of Digital Payments

Jacquelyn Tan, Head of Personal Financial Services, United Overseas Bank (UOB), in Lianhe Zaobao (March 5, 2021)

Summary by Alan Yang Gregory

The Pandemic Is Promoting The Adoption of Digital Payments

The use of cash in Singapore is declining – but at a slow pace. Since the Covid-19 crisis, the use of digital payments has grown. The total value of transactions made by United Overseas Bank (UOB) customers through PayNow service increased by 220 percent in the first 10 months of 2020. Singapore must see this as an opportunity to promote further the growth of digital payments.

In recent years, Singapore’s government has strongly supported the development of digital payments. In April 2019, the Land Transport Authority, UOB and other partners jointly launched the SimplyGo service, which allows passengers to use credit or debit cards to pay for bus or subway fares. During the pandemic, 1,000 ambassadors were recruited to teach the public how to use digital tools.

For consumers, the use of digital payment means that there is no need to count money, making shopping more convenient and transparent. For merchants, eliminating paper payments and manual processes means saving costs and improving efficiency and the consumer experience. When it comes to ensuring public health and safety, digital payments offer a huge advantage. Another key benefit of using digital payment relates to security. Financial institutions can protect digital payment users from losses caused by unauthorized or erroneous transactions.

Despite these benefits, old habits remain a stumbling block for Singapore to move towards a cashless society. Among them, "muscle memory" plays an important role in payment. When consumers start to use digital payments, the reflex habit will develop. The government and businesses should work to encourage consumers to adopt digital payments. Providing incentives and adding simple digital payment options to shopping can speed up adoption. This all requires close cooperation among banks, merchants and the government.

The Covid-19 pandemic has provided a unique opportunity to the payment industry, which Singapore must seize.


Shocking Case of Domestic Helper Abuse Raises Difficult Questions
Tuesday, July 20, 2021
Shocking Case of Domestic Helper Abuse Raises Difficult Questions

Giam Meng Tuck, editor and commentator, in Lianhe Zaobao (February 28, 2021)

Summary by Alan Yang Gregory (Photo credit: Sherwin Huang)

Shocking Case of Domestic Helper Abuse Raises Difficult Questions

The torture and murder of a Myanmar domestic helper, Piang Ngaih Don, was so appalling that Singapore’s attorney general himself directed prosecutors to press for the highest possible charge against the employer. Law and Home Affairs Minister K Shanmugam expressed “complete abhorrence” over the inhumane crime.

The 40-year-old defendant Gaiyathiri Murugayan admitted to torturing the victim for nine months. Why was the abuse not discovered in time?

Under existing regulations, doctors must check the health of domestic workers regularly. This is a chance to report signs of domestic abuse. Yet, past cases have a common feature: The abuse was not found out or swiftly reported by neighbors. This indifference raises questions about Singaporean society.

Domestic workers have left their families and hometowns to work for low wages. On top of this, they may end up ultimately sacrificing their mind, body or even their life. Whether they can be protected and whether they can get justice after being victimized depends not only on effective law enforcement and justice but on our social conscience. No matter how strict the legal framework is, it cannot prevent "ordinary people" from committing extraordinary inhumane crimes.

The Ministry of Manpower is now reviewing the supervision of domestic workers. It is looking at how to improve the notification system for when doctors conduct routine health examinations of domestic workers. Setting up a more effective reporting mechanism is a priority, which requires greater public awareness and better education of society.

Singapore’s wealth and economy are the envy of neighboring countries. The development of Myanmar, Bangladesh, Indonesia and the Philippines remain far behind. Singaporeans must express greater sympathy for all domestic workers so as not to be labelled as "rich but not benevolent".


Stakeholder Capitalism As A Governance Model
Wednesday, July 14, 2021
Stakeholder Capitalism As A Governance Model

Goh Choon Kang, former journalist and member of the Singapore Parliament from 1984 to 1997, in Lianhe Zaobao (February 17, 2021)

Summary by Alan Yang Gregory (Photo credit: Pascal Bitz/World Economic Forum)

Stakeholder Capitalism As A Governance Model

Stakeholder capitalism was a concept advocated by Klaus Schwab when he founded the World Economic Forum in 1971. Shareholder capitalism emphasizes that companies should serve the interests of shareholders, while stakeholder capitalism believes that companies have an obligation to all stakeholders. Shareholder capitalism has been proven extremely harmful, particularly in the US, which has seen widening inequality, intensification of social conflicts, and the control of political parties by powerful interests.

There are still a few countries in the world such as the Nordic countries, New Zealand and Singapore, which are worthy of recognition. Among these countries, Schwab has highlighted Singapore as model of stakeholder government. Schwab’s praise for Singapore spans its public housing construction, education, health and digitalization initiatives.

He has, however, also emphasized that Singapore’s model may be difficult to replicate in other countries with larger or poorer populations. Yet, pragmatic and stakeholder-driven policy making, common in New Zealand and Denmark, are still worthy of recognition. Ultimately, the government should take care of the interests and welfare of all stakeholders.

Schwab may also feel that in this globalized world, Singapore’s commitment to multilateralism is beneficial. This commitment is illustrated through Singapore’s active promotion of the economic integration of the ASEAN region and the country’s participation in the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) and the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (RCEP) trade agreements. Furthermore. the Covid-19 pandemic has illustrated the crucial role this region will play in the global economic recovery.


Because Of The Pandemic, People Have Tough Decisions To Make
Tuesday, July 6, 2021
Because Of The Pandemic, People Have Tough Decisions To Make

Tay Boon Suat, consultant and member of the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce & Industry, in Lianhe Zaobao (January 29, 2021)

Summary by Alan Yang Gregory

Because Of The Pandemic, People Have Tough Decisions To Make

The Covid-19 pandemic has not only created the biggest economic crisis Singapore has ever faced, but it has also severely affected the lives of all Singaporeans. Under this new normal, citizens have several decisions to make.

First, businesses. The government has allocated nearly funds to rescue companies, restructure bank loans, and provide additional credit financing. This is only a short-term fix and companies must ultimately rely on their own abilities to survive. If the situation deteriorates, more than half of local retail companies may collapse within six months. The lack of foreign tourists, high rent and operating expenses are additional pressures. In this era of the Internet of Things, business owners will need to decide how to adapt and transform to survive. The pressure created by the pandemic can be seen as a good opportunity for business owners to change their way of operating.

Second, family financial planning. According to a recent survey, Singaporeans’ basic financial planning performance worsened in 2020 from the previous year. Passive income fell while the amount of borrowing from relatives and friends has risen. The number of people having difficulties in repaying their mortgages has also increased. Restrictions on international travel, however, mean that households are spending less on expensive habits such as taking holidays abroad.

Educating children on the nature of money and making wise financial decisions should be the main goal of Singaporeans today particularly as young people are facing adversity. College students may be unemployed after graduation, and those currently working could be laid off. Everyone will need to be prepared be ready to enter new fields of work at any time.

How the government, companies and citizens make these decisions amid the challenges of the pandemic will ultimately determine Singapore’s future.


The Past, Present and Future of Hawker Culture
Tuesday, March 30, 2021
The Past, Present and Future of Hawker Culture

Amy Khor, Senior Minister of State in the Ministry for Sustainability and the Environment and Ministry for Transport, in Lianhe Zaobao (January 16, 2021) 

Summary by Alan Yang Gregory (Photo credit: David Berkowitz)

The Past, Present and Future of Hawker Culture

Having a meal at a hawker centre is a simple pleasure for many Singaporeans. The first hawker centre was built in the 1970s to house mobile hawkers so that they could do business in a more hygienic environment. With the development of Singapore, the number of hawker centers has increased, and the quality has also improved. Singapore now has more than 110 hawker centers, which are an undeniable part of the country’s rich historical and cultural heritage. To satisfy demand, seven new hawker centers have been constructed since 2015, and 10 more are expected to be completed by 2027.

However, the Covid-19 pandemic has brought challenges to the industry with many hawkers suffering a sharp decline in business due to office workers working at home and the absence of foreign tourists. To help hawkers, who are frontline heroes, through this difficult year, the government has provided assistance by reducing rent and offering subsidies. In addition, many center operators have worked closely with hawkers to introduce food delivery services. 

After the Covid-19 crisis, it will be important to provide hawkers with the necessary support to ensure that they can successfully adapt to the new normal. To achieve this goal, hawkers, trade associations, organization representatives and customers should engage in dialogue to gain an in-depth understanding of the concerns of all parties and work together to find solutions. While hawker culture has already successfully been included in the UNESCO Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, all Singaporeans should play a part in maintaining local hawker culture and support these businesses in the future.


Demonstrate the Safety of the Covid-19 Vaccines
Friday, March 5, 2021
Demonstrate the Safety of the Covid-19 Vaccines

Goh Choon Kang, former journalist and member of the Singapore Parliament from 1984 to 1997, in Lianhe Zaobao (December 16, 2020)

Summary by Alan Yang Gregory (Photo credit: eldar nurkovic / Shutterstock.com)

Demonstrate the Safety of the Covid-19 Vaccines

The unprecedented speed at which Covid-19 vaccines have been developed has made many people question their safety and reliability with rumors and conspiracy theories widely circulating online. This highlights the need to demonstrate scientifically the effectiveness of the vaccines without political interference.

Some experts still have some doubts about the vaccine due to limited data and uncertainty over side effects. When an external panel of experts from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) voted on the emergency use of Pfizer's vaccine, 17 people voted in favor but four opposed and one abstained. The same cautious attitudes can be found around the world. In Singapore, a survey showed that only 48 percent of the respondents would be willing to receive a vaccination as soon as possible while another poll found that nearly 20 percent do not want to be vaccinated.

To reassure the public, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong announced that he and his cabinet would receive the vaccination in public. The government should do more to increase its publicity efforts and proactively persuade people to get vaccinated. Experts in the US believe that, to control the epidemic, around 70 percent of people need to be vaccinated. Nevertheless, it is still a wise decision not to make vaccination compulsory. The World Health Organization opposes mandatory universal vaccination.

Ultimately, it is unrealistic to expect that the pandemic will be fully controlled as soon as the vaccine is available. Singaporeans must continue to pay attention to personal hygiene, maintain social distancing, and wear masks.


The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Means Win-Win Cooperation
Wednesday, February 24, 2021
The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Means Win-Win Cooperation

Felinka Zhou Fan, director of a corporate advisory service company, in Lianhe Zaobao (December 2, 2020)

Summary by Alan Yang Gregory (Photo credit: Prachatai)

The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Means Win-Win Cooperation

Leaders of 15 Asia-Pacific nations have signed the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) agreement, which represents roughly 30 percent of the world’s GDP and population.

Amid a more and more complex backdrop where Covid-19 continues to affect global economic activity, the signing of RCEP represents the determination of these countries to develop free trade, multilateralism and regional economic integration. For international investors outside the RCEP, entering into agreements with any country in the RCEP will be equivalent to entering the entire regional market, which will not only significantly enhance the commercial attractiveness of the region but also help stimulate the recovery of the global economy.

According to the RCEP agreement, at least 92 percent of the tariffs on traded goods will be eliminated between member states. Singapore’s exports to other member states will also enjoy additional preferential treatment. This will reduce tariff costs for businesses and increase profit margins. Meanwhile at least 65 percent of service industries will be fully opened, increasing the ratio of foreign shareholding.

Before the signing of RCEP, economic interactions between China and ASEAN member states, especially Singapore, were already relatively close. Singapore's attractive business environment helped attract many Chinese companies to invest and develop in Singapore, with more than 7,500 Chinese enterprises registered. Chinese enterprises have also accelerated their entry into the ASEAN market in recent years. This has been somewhat imbalanced, however.

Through the implementation of RCEP, achieving multilateral and win-win cooperation will be even more achievable. Meanwhile the relationship between China and ASEAN will be more balanced and all members of RCEP will be able to achieve common development within a harmonious ecosystem.


Cooperate To Develop Sustainable Transportation
Wednesday, February 17, 2021
Cooperate To Develop Sustainable Transportation

Aw Kah Peng, Chairman, Shell Companies in Singapore, in Lianhe Zaobao (December 24, 2020)

Summary by Alan Yang Gregory (Photo credit: Jason Goh/Pixabay)

Cooperate To Develop Sustainable Transportation

The future of Singapore's transportation sector will depend upon innovation and sustainability. Over the next 50 years, a major challenge facing Singapore will be how to provide clean, economical and reliable energy.

Singapore’s governance advantages include a focus on long-term planning. In 2020, the government launched a sustainable transportation vision, which included the phasing out of all internal combustion engine cars by 2040. The enhanced vehicle emission reduction tax plan implemented from January 1, 2021, will further narrow the price gap between electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles.

The government also announced a three-year incentive to encourage consumers to purchase electric vehicles. They plan to expand the electric vehicle charging network to 28,000 charging stations by 2030. In addition to electric vehicles, hydrogen and liquefied natural gas are also designated as important sources of future energy to meet the needs of heavy vehicles.

To popularize electric vehicles, Singapore requires the corresponding infrastructure, including a robust national power grid. The government must also continue to control vehicle growth through measures such as quotas and land-use restrictions, while increasing the use of car-sharing services. In addition, the government should use data and digital technology to expand and improve the public transportation system, while encouraging more people to abandon private cars. This would support the government's goal of ensuring that by 2030 80 percent of Singapore households will be within a 10-minute walk to a subway train station.

As Singapore intensifies its efforts to promote low-carbon and sustainable transportation, the government should establish an energy ecosystem, formulate corresponding regulations to meet specific needs, and work to reshape the commuter experience. Most important is the need for the government, industry, and consumers to work together to identify trends that meet society’s changing needs.